Section I Use of English
Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark [A], [B], [C] or [D] on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)
Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle viewed laughter as “a bodily exercise precious to health.” But __1___some claims to the contrary, laughing probably has little influence on physical fitness Laughter does __2___short-term changes in the function of the heart and its blood vessels, ___3_ heart rate and oxygen consumption But because hard laughter is difficult to __4__, a good laugh is unlikely to have __5___ benefits the way, say, walking or jogging does.
__6__, instead of straining muscles to build them, as exercise does, laughter apparently accomplishes the __7__, studies dating back to the 1930’s indicate that laughter__8___ muscles, decreasing muscle tone for up to 45 minutes after the laugh dies down.
Such bodily reaction might conceivably help _9__the effects of psychological stress. Anyway, the act of laughing probably does produce other types of ___10___ feedback, that improve an individual’s emotional state. __11____one classical theory of emotion, our feelings are partially rooted ____12___ physical reactions. It was argued at the end of the 19th century that humans do not cry ___13___they are sad but they become sad when the tears begin to flow.
Although sadness also ____14___ tears, evidence suggests that emotions can flow __15___ muscular responses. In an experiment published in 1988,social psychologist Fritz Strack of the University of würzburg in Germany asked volunteers to __16___ a pen either with their teeth-thereby creating an artificial smile – or with their lips, which would produce a(n) __17___ expression. Those forced to exercise their smiling muscles ___18___ more exuberantly to funny cartons than did those whose mouths were contracted in a frown, ____19___ that expressions may influence emotions rather than just the other way around __20__ , the physical act of laughter could improve mood.
1．[A]among [B]except [C]despite [D]like
2．[A]reflect [B]demand [C]indicate [D]produce
3．[A]stabilizing [B]boosting [C]impairing [D]determining
4．[A]transmit [B]sustain [C]evaluate [D]observe
5．[A]measurable [B]manageable [C]affordable [D]renewable
6．[A]In turn [B]In fact [C]In addition [D]In brief
7．[A]opposite [B]impossible [C]average [D]expected
8．[A]hardens [B]weakens [C]tightens [D]relaxes
9．[A]aggravate [B]generate [C]moderate [D]enhance
10．[A]physical [B]mental [C]subconscious [D]internal
11．[A]Except for [B]According to [C]Due to [D]As for
12．[A]with [B]on [C]in [D]at
13．[A]unless [B]until [C]if [D]because
14．[A]exhausts [B]follows [C]precedes [D]suppresses
15．[A]into [B]from [C]towards [D]beyond
16．[A]fetch [B]bite [C]pick [D]hold
17．[A]disappointed [B]excited [C]joyful [D]indifferent
18．[A]adapted [B]catered [C]turned [D]reacted
19．[A]suggesting [B]requiring [C]mentioning [D]supposing
20．[A]Eventually [B]Consequently [C]Similarly [D]Conversely
Section II Reading Comprehension
Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing [A], [B], [C] or [D]. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)
The decision of the New York Philharmonic to hire Alan Gilbert as its next music director has been the talk of the classical-music world ever since the sudden announcement of his appointment in 2009. For the most part, the response has been favorable, to say the least. “Hooray! At last!” wrote Anthony Tommasini, a sober-sided classical-music critic.
One of the reasons why the appointment came as such a surprise, however, is that Gilbert is comparatively little known. Even Tommasini, who had advocated Gilbert’s appointment in the Times, calls him “an unpretentious musician with no air of the formidable conductor about him.” As a description of the next music director of an orchestra that has hitherto been led by musicians like Gustav Mahler and Pierre Boulez, that seems likely to have struck at least some Times readers as faint praise.
For my part, I have no idea whether Gilbert is a great conductor or even a good one. To be sure, he performs an impressive variety of interesting compositions, but it is not necessary for me to visit Avery Fisher Hall, or anywhere else, to hear interesting orchestral music. All I have to do is to go to my CD shelf, or boot up my computer and download still more recorded music from iTunes.
Devoted concertgoers who reply that recordings are no substitute for live performance are missing the point. For the time, attention, and money of the art-loving public, classical instrumentalists must compete not only with opera houses, dance troupes, theater companies, and museums, but also with the recorded performances of the great classical musicians of the 20th century. There recordings are cheap, available everywhere, and very often much higher in artistic quality than today’s live performances; moreover, they can be “consumed” at a time and place of the listener’s choosing. The widespread availability of such recordings has thus brought about a crisis in the institution of the traditional classical concert.
One possible response is for classical performers to program attractive new music that is not yet available on record. Gilbert’s own interest in new music has been widely noted: Alex Ross, a classical-music critic, has described him as a man who is capable of turning the Philharmonic into “a markedly different, more vibrant organization.” But what will be the nature of that difference? Merely expanding the orchestra’s repertoire will not be enough. If Gilbert and the Philharmonic are to succeed, they must first change the relationship between America’s oldest orchestra and the new audience it hops to attract.
21. We learn from Para.1 that Gilbert’s appointment has
22. Tommasini regards Gilbert as an artist who is
23. The author believes that the devoted concertgoers
[A]ignore the expenses of live performances.
[B]reject most kinds of recorded performances.
[C]exaggerate the variety of live performances.
[D]overestimate the value of live performances.
24. According to the text, which of the following is true of recordings?
[A]They are often inferior to live concerts in quality.
[B]They are easily accessible to the general public.
[C]They help improve the quality of music.
[D]They have only covered masterpieces.
25. Regarding Gilbert’s role in revitalizing the Philharmonic, the author feels
When Liam McGee departed as president of Bank of America in August, his explanation was surprisingly straight up. Rather than cloaking his exit in the usual vague excuses, he came right out and said he was leaving “to pursue my goal of running a company.” Broadcasting his ambition was “very much my decision,” McGee says. Within two weeks, he was talking for the first time with the board of Hartford Financial Services Group, which named him CEO and chairman on September 29.
McGee says leaving without a position lined up gave him time to reflect on what kind of company he wanted to run. It also sent a clear message to the outside world about his aspirations. And McGee isn’t alone. In recent weeks the No.2 executives at Avon and American Express quit with the explanation that they were looking for a CEO post. As boards scrutinize succession plans in response to shareholder pressure, executives who don’t get the nod also may wish to move on. A turbulent business environment also has senior managers cautious of letting vague pronouncements cloud their reputations.
As the first signs of recovery begin to take hold, deputy chiefs may be more willing to make the jump without a net. In the third quarter, CEO turnover was down 23% from a year ago as nervous boards stuck with the leaders they had, according to Liberum Research. As the economy picks up, opportunities will abound for aspiring leaders.
The decision to quit a senior position to look for a better one is unconventional. For years executives and headhunters have adhered to the rule that the most attractive CEO candidates are the ones who must be poached. Says Korn/Ferry senior partner Dennis Carey:”I can’t think of a single search I’ve done where a board has not instructed me to look at sitting CEOs first.”
Those who jumped without a job haven’t always landed in top positions quickly. Ellen Marram quit as chief of Tropicana a decade age, saying she wanted to be a CEO. It was a year before she became head of a tiny Internet-based commodities exchange. Robert Willumstad left Citigroup in 2005 with ambitions to be a CEO. He finally took that post at a major financial institution three years later.
Many recruiters say the old disgrace is fading for top performers. The financial crisis has made it more acceptable to be between jobs or to leave a bad one. “The traditional rule was it’s safer to stay where you are, but that’s been fundamentally inverted,” says one headhunter. “The people who’ve been hurt the worst are those who’ve stayed too long.”
26.When McGee announced his departure, his manner can best be described as being
27. According to Paragraph 2, senior executives’ quitting may be spurred by
[A]their expectation of better financial status.
[B]their need to reflect on their private life.
[C]their strained relations with the boards.
[D]their pursuit of new career goals.
28.The word “poached” (Line 3, Paragraph 4) most probably means
29.It can be inferred from the last paragraph that
[A]top performers used to cling to their posts.
[B]loyalty of top performers is getting out-dated.
[C]top performers care more about reputations.
[D]it’s safer to stick to the traditional rules.
30. Which of the following is the best title for the text?
[A]CEOs: Where to Go?
[B]CEOs: All the Way Up?
[C]Top Managers Jump without a Net
[D]The Only Way Out for Top Performers
The rough guide to marketing success used to be that you got what you paid for. No longer. While traditional “paid” media – such as television commercials and print advertisements – still play a major role, companies today can exploit many alternative forms of media. Consumers passionate about a product may create “owned” media by sending e-mail alerts about products and sales to customers registered with its Web site. The way consumers now approach the broad range of factors beyond conventional paid media.
Paid and owned media are controlled by marketers promoting their own products. For earned media , such marketers act as the initiator for users’ responses. But in some cases, one marketer’s owned media become another marketer’s paid media – for instance, when an e-commerce retailer sells ad space on its Web site. We define such sold media as owned media whose traffic is so strong that other organizations place their content or e-commerce engines within that environment. This trend ,which we believe is still in its infancy, effectively began with retailers and travel providers such as airlines and hotels and will no doubt go further. Johnson & Johnson, for example, has created BabyCenter, a stand-alone media property that promotes complementary and even competitive products. Besides generating income, the presence of other marketers makes the site seem objective, gives companies opportunities to learn valuable information about the appeal of other companies’ marketing, and may help expand user traffic for all companies concerned.
The same dramatic technological changes that have provided marketers with more (and more diverse) communications choices have also increased the risk that passionate consumers will voice their opinions in quicker, more visible, and much more damaging ways. Such hijacked media are the opposite of earned media: an asset or campaign becomes hostage to consumers, other stakeholders, or activists who make negative allegations about a brand or product. Members of social networks, for instance, are learning that they can hijack media to apply pressure on the businesses that originally created them.
If that happens, passionate consumers would try to persuade others to boycott products, putting the reputation of the target company at risk. In such a case, the company’s response may not be sufficiently quick or thoughtful, and the learning curve has been steep. Toyota Motor, for example, alleviated some of the damage from its recall crisis earlier this year with a relatively quick and well-orchestrated social-media response campaign, which included efforts to engage with consumers directly on sites such as Twitter and the social-news site Digg.
31.Consumers may create “earned” media when they are
[A] obscssed with online shopping at certain Web sites.
[B] inspired by product-promoting e-mails sent to them.
[C] eager to help their friends promote quality products.
[D] enthusiastic about recommending their favorite products.
32. According to Paragraph 2,sold media feature
[A] a safe business environment.
[B] random competition.
[C] strong user traffic.
[D] flexibility in organization.
33. The author indicates in Paragraph 3 that earned media
[A] invite constant conflicts with passionate consumers.
[B] can be used to produce negative effects in marketing.
[C] may be responsible for fiercer competition.
[D] deserve all the negative comments about them.
34. Toyota Motor’s experience is cited as an example of
[A] responding effectively to hijacked media.
[B] persuading customers into boycotting products.
[C] cooperating with supportive consumers.
[D] taking advantage of hijacked media.
35. Which of the following is the text mainly about ?
[A] Alternatives to conventional paid media.
[B] Conflict between hijacked and earned media.
[C] Dominance of hijacked media.
[D] Popularity of owned media.
It’s no surprise that Jennifer Senior’s insightful, provocative magazine cover story, “I love My Children, I Hate My Life,” is arousing much chatter – nothing gets people talking like the suggestion that child rearing is anything less than a completely fulfilling, life-enriching experience. Rather than concluding that children make parents either happy or miserable, Senior suggests we need to redefine happiness: instead of thinking of it as something that can be measured by moment-to-moment joy, we should consider being happy as a past-tense condition. Even though the day-to-day experience of raising kids can be soul-crushingly hard, Senior writes that “the very things that in the moment dampen our moods can later be sources of intense gratification and delight.”
The magazine cover showing an attractive mother holding a cute baby is hardly the only Madonna-and-child image on newsstands this week. There are also stories about newly adoptive – and newly single – mom Sandra Bullock, as well as the usual “Jennifer Aniston is pregnant” news. Practically every week features at least one celebrity mom, or mom-to-be, smiling on the newsstands.
In a society that so persistently celebrates procreation, is it any wonder that admitting you regret having children is equivalent to admitting you support kitten-killing ? It doesn’t seem quite fair, then, to compare the regrets of parents to the regrets of the children. Unhappy parents rarely are provoked to wonder if they shouldn’t have had kids, but unhappy childless folks are bothered with the message that children are the single most important thing in the world: obviously their misery must be a direct result of the gaping baby-size holes in their lives.
Of course, the image of parenthood that celebrity magazines like Us Weekly and People present is hugely unrealistic, especially when the parents are single mothers like Bullock. According to several studies concluding that parents are less happy than childless couples, single parents are the least happy of all. No shock there, considering how much work it is to raise a kid without a partner to lean on; yet to hear Sandra and Britney tell it, raising a kid on their “own” (read: with round-the-clock help) is a piece of cake.
It’s hard to imagine that many people are dumb enough to want children just because Reese and Angelina make it look so glamorous: most adults understand that a baby is not a haircut. But it’s interesting to wonder if the images we see every week of stress-free, happiness-enhancing parenthood aren’t in some small, subconscious way contributing to our own dissatisfactions with the actual experience, in the same way that a small part of us hoped getting “ the Rachel” might make us look just a little bit like Jennifer Aniston.
36.Jennifer Senior suggests in her article that raising a child can bring
[B]enjoyment in progress
[C]happiness in retrospect
37.We learn from Paragraph 2 that
[A]celebrity moms are a permanent source for gossip.
[B]single mothers with babies deserve greater attention.
[C]news about pregnant celebrities is entertaining.
[D]having children is highly valued by the public.
38.It is suggested in Paragraph 3 that childless folks
[A]are constantly exposed to criticism.
[B]are largely ignored by the media.
[C]fail to fulfill their social responsibilities.
[D]are less likely to be satisfied with their life.
39.According to Paragraph 4, the message conveyed by celebrity magazines is
40.Which of the following can be inferred from the last paragraph?
[A]Having children contributes little to the glamour of celebrity moms.
[B]Celebrity moms have influenced our attitude towards child rearing.
[C]Having children intensifies our dissatisfaction with life.
[D]We sometimes neglect the happiness from child rearing.
The following paragraph are given in a wrong order. For Questions 41-45, you are required to reorganize these paragraphs into a coherent text by choosing from the list A-G to filling them into the numbered boxes. Paragraphs E and G have been correctly placed. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)
[A] No disciplines have seized on professionalism with as much enthusiasm as the humanities. You can, Mr Menand points out, became a lawyer in three years and a medical doctor in four. But the regular time it takes to get a doctoral degree in the humanities is nine years. Not surprisingly, up to half of all doctoral students in English drop out before getting their degrees.
[B] His concern is mainly with the humanities: Literature, languages, philosophy and so on. These are disciplines that are going out of style: 22% of American college graduates now major in business compared with only 2% in history and 4% in English. However, many leading American universities want their undergraduates to have a grounding in the basic canon of ideas that every educated person should posses. But most find it difficult to agree on what a “general education” should look like. At Harvard, Mr Menand notes, “the great books are read because they have been read”-they form a sort of social glue.
[C] Equally unsurprisingly, only about half end up with professorships for which they entered graduate school. There are simply too few posts. This is partly because universities continue to produce ever more PhDs. But fewer students want to study humanities subjects: English departments awarded more bachelor’s degrees in 1970-71 than they did 20 years later. Fewer students requires fewer teachers. So, at the end of a decade of theses-writing, many humanities students leave the profession to do something for which they have not been trained.
[D] One reason why it is hard to design and teach such courses is that they can cut across the insistence by top American universities that liberal-arts educations and professional education should be kept separate, taught in different schools. Many students experience both varieties. Although more than half of Harvard undergraduates end up in law, medicine or business, future doctors and lawyers must study a non-specialist liberal-arts degree before embarking on a professional qualification.
[E] Besides professionalizing the professions by this separation, top American universities have professionalised the professor. The growth in public money for academic research has speeded the process: federal research grants rose fourfold between 1960and 1990, but faculty teaching hours fell by half as research took its toll. Professionalism has turned the acquisition of a doctoral degree into a prerequisite for a successful academic career: as late as 1969a third of American professors did not possess one. But the key idea behind professionalisation, argues Mr Menand, is that “the knowledge and skills needed for a particular specialization are transmissible but not transferable.”So disciplines acquire a monopoly not just over the production of knowledge, but also over the production of the producers of knowledge.
[F] The key to reforming higher education, concludes Mr Menand, is to alter the way in which “the producers of knowledge are produced.”Otherwise, academics will continue to think dangerously alike, increasingly detached from the societies which they study, investigate and criticize.”Academic inquiry, at least in some fields, may need to become less exclusionary and more holistic.”Yet quite how that happens, Mr Menand dose not say.
[G] The subtle and intelligent little book The Marketplace of Ideas: Reform and Resistance in the American University should be read by every student thinking of applying to take a doctoral degree. They may then decide to go elsewhere. For something curious has been happening in American Universities, and Louis Menand, a professor of English at Harvard University, captured it skillfully.
Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written carefully on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points)
With its theme that “Mind is the master weaver,” creating our inner character and outer circumstances, the book As a Man Thinking by James Allen is an in-depth exploration of the central idea of self-help writing.
(46) Allen’s contribution was to take an assumption we all share-that because we are not robots we therefore control our thoughts-and reveal its erroneous nature.Because most of us believe that mind is separate from matter, we think that thoughts can be hidden and made powerless; this allows us to think one way and act another. However, Allen believed that the unconscious mind generates as much action as the conscious mind, and (47) while we may be able to sustain the illusion of control through the conscious mind alone, in reality we are continually faced with a question: “Why cannot I make myself do this or achieve that? ”
Since desire and will are damaged by the presence of thoughts that do not accord with desire, Allen concluded : “ We do not attract what we want, but what we are.” Achievement happens because you as a person embody the external achievement; you don’t “ get” success but become it. There is no gap between mind and matter.
\Part of the fame of Allen’s book is its contention that “Circumstances do not make a person, they reveal him.”(48) This seems a justification for neglect of those in need, and a rationalization of exploitation, of the superiority of those at the top and the inferiority of those at the bottom.
This ,however, would be a knee-jerk reaction to a subtle argument. Each set of circumstances, however bad, offers a unique opportunity for growth. If circumstances always determined the life and prospects of people, then humanity would never have progressed. In fat, (49)circumstances seem to be designed to bring out the best in us and if we feel that we have been “wronged” then we are unlikely to begin a conscious effort to escape from our situation .Nevertheless, as any biographer knows, a person’s early life and its conditions are often the greatest gift to an individual.
The sobering aspect of Allen’s book is that we have no one else to blame for our present condition except ourselves. (50) The upside is the possibilities contained in knowing that everything is up to us; where before we were experts in the array of limitations, now we become authorities of what is possible.
Section Ⅲ Writing
Write a letter to a friend of yours to
1) recommend one of your favorite movies and 2) give reasons for your recommendation
Your should write about 100 words on ANSWER SHEET 2
Do not sign your own name at the end of the leter. User“LI MING” instead.
Do not writer the address.(10 points)
Write an essay of 160---200 words based on the following drawing. In your essay, you should
1)describe the drawing briefly,
2)explain it’s intended meaning, and
3)give your comments.
Your should write neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (20 points)
Section I Use of English
1-5 CDBBA 6-10 BADCA 11-15 BCDCB 16-20 DADAC
解析：语义辨析题。上下文语境是“笑确实能 短期的改变”。A. reflect“反映”，B. demand“要求”，C. indicate“表明，暗示”，D. produce“产生”，只有D 选项符合语境，所以是正确答案。
解析：语义搭配题。文中提到“笑能够 心律呼吸速率。” A. stabilizing 意思是“安定，稳定”，B. boosting“促进，推进”，C. impairing“损害，削弱”，D. determining“决定”，根据语境应该是“笑能够促进心律呼吸速率”，B为正确答案。
解析：语义辨析题。这句话意思是“但是因为大笑很难 ，一次狂笑不可能……”，四个选项的含义分别是 A. transmit “传播”，B. sustain“维持”，C. evaluate“评估”，D. observe“观察”，根据语境，只有B. sustain符合语境。
解析：语义辨析题。这句话意思是“一次狂笑不可能像比如走路或者慢跑那样对心血管功能产生 益处。” A. measurable“重大的，重要的”，B. manageable“易控制的”，C. affordable“负担得起的”，D. renewable“可再生的”，四个选项中能和“益处”搭配的只有A. measurable，故是正确答案。
解析：逻辑分析题。第二段第一句是说“其他的锻炼可以拉紧增强肌肉，很显然笑确是起到了……作用”，对上文有承接还有转折的关系，A. In turn 意思是“轮流”，C. In addition是“另外”，D. In brief 意思是“简而言之”，都不符合语境，只有B. In fact“事实上”符合上下文语境，是正确选项。
解析：语义搭配题。空格前后面是“笑 肌肉”，A. hardens“使变硬”，B. weakens“减少”，C. tightens“是变紧”，D. relaxes“放松”，因为上文提到了“其他的锻炼可以拉紧增强肌肉，很显然笑确实起到了相反的作用”。“拉紧”的反义词只有D. relaxes，故正确。
解析：语义搭配题。这句话的意思是“这样的身体放松可能会帮助 心理紧张状态的影响。” A. aggravate“加剧，恶化”，B. generate“使形成，发生”，C. moderate“节制，减轻”，D. enhance“增加”，根据上下文语境，只能是“减轻心理压力”，故C是正确选项。
解析：语义逻辑题。这句话的意思是“笑的行为毕竟可能会产生其他形式的 反馈来提高个体的情绪状态。”其中提到“笑的行为”，它是一种身体上的行为，后面提到“其他 反馈”，应该是和“笑”相呼应的，故正确选项是A。
解析：词义辨析题。根据已知信息推测，应该是“根据一个经典的情绪理论，……”A. Except for表示“除了……”，它引出一个与前面的词相反的原因或者事例； B. According to“根据， 按照”，表示依据，后面常跟表示理论、思想之类的词，是正确答案。C. Due to“由于，因为” 后面跟一般原因，D. As for“至于，就……方面说”用以转换话题和表现态度，故排除。
解析：固定搭配题。be rooted in是固定词组表示“来源于……”be rooted跟其它选项不搭配使用，故排除。
解析：逻辑关系题。这句话的意思是“人们不会 他们伤心而哭，但当开始流泪时他们才变得伤心。”伤心和哭之间是因果关系，所以答案应该是D. because。
解析：词义辨析/语义逻辑题。解题关键although。although表示假设，让步。由上文提到当人们流泪时才觉得伤心可知，伤心在流泪之后。这里要说另一种情况“伤心也会在流泪之前”而A. exhausts“使筋疲力尽；使疲惫不堪”，B. follows “跟随” C. precedes“先于，表示在……之前发生(或出现)”；D. suppresses“压制；阻止；抑制”，语义不符。
解析：词义辨析题。由已知信息可知原文要表达“证据显示情绪是肌肉反映的结果”A. into“进入……中， 到……里” B. from “来自”表原因，符合表达需要，故为正确答案。C. towards向， 朝 D. beyond “超出，超过”意思不符合，故排除。
解析：词义辨析题。A. fetch“取来”，B. bite“咬， 叮”， C. pick“采， 摘”， D. hold“拿， 抱， 握住”，根据上下文信息可知该实验要求志愿者用牙咬住或者用嘴含住一支笔。hold的意思最符合。
解析：词义辨析/语义逻辑题。由已知信息“用嘴含住一支笔”推测，这个动作会产生一种失望的表情 A. disappointed“失望的”意思最符合，B. excited “兴奋的”，C. joyful“快乐的”，D. indifferent“漠不关心的”都不符合语境，故排除。
解析：词义辨析题。A. adapted to“变得习惯于……, 使适应于……”，B. catered to “迎合，满足某种需要或要求”，C. turned……to“转向”，D. reacted to“对……作出反应”，根据原文表达需要“在观看有趣的动画片时……”此处正确选项是D. reacted to。
解析：词义辨析题。根据前文信息，由前面的实验结果“那些被强制锻炼笑肌的人比那些嘴唇皱着表情失望的人在观看有趣的动画片时反应更加丰富”，我们可以推断出一个结论A. suggesting表明，后接结论的句子，符合要求，故为正确答案。B. requiring “需要，要求”， C. mentioning “提到”，D. supposing“假定， 假设”都不符合上下文语境，故排除。
解析：逻辑分析题。上文提到了“表情而不是其他的方式可能会影响情绪”，后文又提到了“笑的生理行为可以使心情好转”，前后句解释的是同一种情况。A. Eventually和B. Consequently，都是作为“总结”的副词，D. Conversely表示“相反”，只有 C. Similarly“相似的是”，符合上下文逻辑，是正确选项。
Section II Reading Comprehension
解析：推断题。本题要求根据文章第一段，判断社会对Gilbert的任命有什么回应和反响。根据原文第一段第二句“For the most part, the response has been favorable, …”和“Hooray! At last!”可知回应是积极的，因此正确答案是[C] received acclaim(得到称赞)。
解析：细节题。根据Tommasini在第二段对Gilbert的评论：calls him “ an unpretentious musician with no air of the formidable conductor about him”，可知Tommasini认为Gilbert是an unpretentious musician。unpretentious由un(否定前缀)和pretentious构成，考生看到pretentious可以想到pretend (假装，作假 )，那么可推出unpretentious是“不做假的，不虚饰或矫揉造作的”，答案[B] modest(谦逊的)意思最为接近，故[B]项为正确答案。
解析：推断题。本题考查作者对于现场表演的虔诚追随者的观点态度。从文章第三段可知，作者自己选择听唱片/录音而不是听现场音乐会。第四段开头作者提到，devoted concertgoers认为“录音不能代替现场表演”，但作者认为devoted concertgoers are missing the point(现场表演虔诚的追随者没有切中要害)，之后是论据支持作者的观点，作者认为These recordings are cheap, available everywhere, and very often much higher in artistic quality than today’s live performances，即录音便宜、容易得到，且通常比今天的现场音乐会有更高的艺术品质。[D]项overestimate the value of live performances(高估了现场表演的价值)是对作者对于devoted concertgoers观点的高度概括，故为正确答案。
解析：推断题。关于recordings，作者主要在第四段加以论述。从第四段第三句“These recordings are cheap，available everywhere…”和第四段最后一句“the widespread availability of such recordings has thus brought …。”很容易推断出选项[B] They are easily accessible to the general public(大众很容易就能得到这些唱片)为正确答案。
解析：态度题。本题考查作者对于Gilbert在振兴交响乐团中的作用是什么态度。文章最后一段，尤其是最后三句提到，“But what will be the nature of that difference? Merely expanding the orchestra’s repertoire will not be enough. If Gilbert and the Philharmonic are to succeed, they must first change the relationship between America’s oldest orchestra and the new audience it hopes to attract。”很明显作者认为“Gilbert与众不同的实质仅仅是增加了管弦乐队的节目，这是不够的”，“Gilbert和the Philharmonic要想成功，还必须做一些事情”，由此可知作者不满意Gilbert在振兴交响乐团中的作用。故[A]项doubtful(怀疑的)为正确答案。
解析：细节题。题目问到“当McGee宣布他离开时，对他的态度可以最好的描述为 。”文章首段首句提到，“When Liam McGee departed …, his explanation was surprisingly straight up。”，即“当Liam McGee离开时，他的解释是直率的”，后文具体描述时还提到，“Rather than cloaking his exit in the usual vague excuses, he came right out and said …”，即“他不是用通常模糊的理由掩饰他的离开，而是坦率地说……”，所以正确答案为[B]项frank(坦率的)，是对文中“straight up”和“right out”的同义替换。
解析：细节题。本题问驱使高级管理人员离职的可能原因。文章第二段首先谈到，McGee思考他想要经营什么样的公司，他的离职给外界传递了他的aspirations(渴望)。第三句And McGee isn’t alone。谈到不光McGee是这种情况，言外之意是“很多高级管理人员是同样的情况”，下面举例谈到“… the No. 2 executives at Avon and American Express … quit with the explanation that they were looking for a CEO post”，即高管辞职是因为他们有新的渴望，追求新的职业目标。故[D]项their pursuit of new career goals(他们追求新的职业目标)为正确答案。
解析：词义题。第四段首句是该段中心句，谈到辞去高级职位寻找更好职位的决定不是常规的。后文围绕该中心句论述。要推断的词poached出现在该段第二句中：For years executives and headhunters have adhered to the rule that the most attractive CEO candidates are the ones who must be poached。意思是“多年来高官们和猎头坚持这一原则：最新吸引人的CEO候选人一定会……”，从含义上我们可以推断出be poached的含义为“被寻找、被注意到、被重视”的意思。故从[B]项和[C]项中选答案。考虑到[C]项中的hunted for含义正确，且是文中出现的headhunters和search的同义替换，证据确凿，故为正确答案。干扰项：[A]项approved of(被赞成)、[B]项attended of(被照顾、被看护)含义不准确。[D]项guarded against(被预防)与原文意思相反。
解析：推断题。该段第二句提到，The financial crisis has made it more acceptable to be between jobs or to leave a bad one，意思是金融危机使得跳槽或离开糟糕的岗位更可被接受。后面引用一个猎头的话进一步证明这一观点，猎头说：传统的规则认为呆在原地更安全，但是这已经从根本上改变了。那些最受伤的人们是那些呆最长时间的人。[A]项top performers used to cling to their posts(高管过去常常坚持他们的岗位)是对文中“The traditional rule was it’s safer to say where you are, but that’s been fundamentally inverted”的同义替换。
解析：本文以Liam McGee的故事开头，他宣布离职的方式非常坦率，两周后找到了新职位。第二段继续谈到，McGee在没有找到新职位的情况下离开，这给了他思考未来的时间，同他一样，高管们离职的原因是要去追求新的职业目标。第三段中心是，高管们更愿意在没有新职位的情况下跳槽。第四段的中心是辞去高级职位然后去寻找更好的工作不是常规做法。第五段谈到没有工作就跳槽的那些人并不总是很快就有高职位。第六段讲如今跳槽或离开不好的工作更为可取。文章一直在重复一个主题“高管们辞职后再去找新工作”，故[C]项Top Managers Jump without a Net(高管们在没有新工作的情况下辞职)为正确答案。文中的“McGee leaving without a position lined up，deputy chiefs may be more willing to make the jump without a net，to quit a position to look for a better one，jump without a job”都在重复这个主题。
解析：细节题。题目“当消费者______时，可能会造就‘免费’媒体”。定位到第一段第三句前半句话“Consumers passionate about a product may create “earned” media by willingly promoting it to friends”，意思是“消费者由于很喜欢某个产品，故主动地将之向朋友推荐，由此造就了‘免费’媒体”，选项[D] enthusiastic about recommending their favorite products(热衷于向朋友推荐他们最喜欢的产品)。
解析：细节推断题。题目“由第二段可知，收费媒体的特点是_____”。定位到第二段第四句“We define such sold media as owned media whose traffic is so strong that other organizations place their content or e-ecommerce engines within that envrionment”，由此句可知收费媒体(sold media)是指那些流量非常大的免费媒体，由于他们的流量如此之大以至于其他的机构也乐于把自己的产品信息或者电子上午引擎置于这些免费媒体中，于是就会向免费媒体购买广告位置(结合本段第三句理解)，由此可知选项[C] strong user traffic(强大的用户流量)为正确答案。
干扰项：[A] a safe business environment (安全的商业环境)[B] random competition (自由竞争)[D] flexibility in organization (组织灵活)均非文中信息，无中生有。
解析：细节题。题目“第三段中，作者认为免费媒体______”。第三段提到免费媒体提供便利的同时，也带来了风险，比如可能被利用去传播某个品牌或产品的负面信息，由此可知选项[B] can be used to produce negative effects in marketing (可能会被用来制造对营销不利的负面影响)正符合此意。
解析：例证题。题目“Toyota Motor是一个_______的例子”。定位到末段，末段主要提到热情的消费者可能会号召其他人抵制某个产品，威胁到产品所属公司的名声，这时公司的回应有可能不够迅速、周到。这是本段的核心信息。接下来就拿Toyota Motor举例，举例中提到这个公司在公司名声遇到如上提到的危机情况时作出的反应，且成功减轻了危害程度。由此可知，例子是对本段中心句的一个反面例子论证公司对hijacked media的反应。故选项[A](有效地回应被劫持利用的媒体)为正确答案。
解析：主旨题。题目“这篇文化在那个主要讲述的是______”。本文首段第三句就提出文章中心“companies today can exploit many alternative forms of media”，即虽然传统收费媒体仍在发挥重大作用，但是现今的公司可以去选择其他媒体形式。后文主要是介绍其他可选择的媒体形式，并对其作出评论。故选项[A] Alternatives to conventional paid media (与传统收费媒体对应的其他媒体形式)为正确答案。
解析：细节题。题目“Jenifer Senior在她的文章中认为养育孩子可以带来_____”。定位到第一段第二句“Senior suggests that we need to redefine happiness: instead of thinking of it as something that can be measured by moment-to-moment joy, we should consider being happy as a past-tense condition”，意思是说我们应该把幸福看作为一种“过去时”的状态，而不应该把它看作为一种可以即时即地的快乐。最后一句补充道，那些一开始让我们情绪低落的事情，后来可能会是强烈的满足和快乐感的来源。由此可知，选项[C] happiness in retrospect(幸福的回忆、回顾往事时的幸福感)为正确答案。
解析：推断题。题目“由第二段可知_____”。定位到第二段。第二段是承接第一段中心“养育孩子能成为后来幸福快乐的源泉”而来的，符合中心表达的意思。而且在第三段首句接着第二段提到“in a society that so persistently celebrates procreation(在一个如此赞扬生育的社会中)”，这是一个承上启下的句子，是对第二段的总结，也符合第一段以及第二段对养育孩子的正面评价。故选项[D] having children is highly valued by the public (养育孩子受到大众的高度重视)，是对原文赞扬生育的同义替换，为正确答案。
解析：细节推断题。题目“由第三段可知，无儿女的人们会_____”。第三段最后一句but后面的信息提到，不幸福但育有儿女的父母很少会遭到挑衅，而去思考他们当初是不是不应该要孩子，但是不幸福且无儿女的人们经常会受到一个信息的困扰，即孩子是世界上唯一最重要的事情。后面又补充道，很明显正是没有孩子这一人生中的空白导直接导致了他们的痛苦。故选项[A] are constantly exposed to criticism (常常是指责的对象)符合此意，为正确答案。
解析：细节题。题目中“名人杂志传达的信息是_____”。定位到原文第四段第一句“the image of parenthood that celebrity magazines like Us Weekly and People present is hugely unrealistic”，名人杂志中为人父母的形象是非常不现实的。选项[D] misleading(误导的)是对原文unrealistic的同义替换。干扰选项：[A] soothing (抚慰的，令人宽心的)、[B] ambiguous (模糊的)、[C] compensatory (补偿的)均为无中生有。
解析：推断题。题目“从最后一段我们可以推断出如下哪个选项”。定位到最后一段转折处“But it’s interesting to wonder if the images we see every week of stress-free, happiness-enhancing parenthood aren’t in some small, subconscious way contributing to our own satisfactions with the actual experience, in the say way that a small part of us hoped getting ‘the Rachel’ might make us just a little bit like Jennifer Anniston”，意思为我们每周看到的名人形象(没有压力、提升幸福感的名人形象)会使我们潜意识中对现实经历有所不满。由此可知，选项[B] Celebrity moms have influenced out attitude towards child rearing (名人妈妈形象影响了我们对抚养孩子的态度)是正确的。
干扰选项：[A] Having children contributes little to the glamour of celebrity moms(生育孩子对名
解析：从给出的开头段落G，可以看出这是一篇介绍Louis Menand的书The Marketplace of Ideas: Reform and Resistance in the American University和他的观点的文章，紧接着下面就应该讲他书中阐释的问题和他的观点，B选项中开头一句提到his concern，暗示提出问题，指出美国大学存在的主要问题。从结构上来看，B选项内容能够合理地与G选项衔接，故41题正确答案为B选项。
解析：A选项指出，没有哪门专业化学科像人文学科这样，需要倾注如此多的热情，之后提到获得人文学科的博士学位，需要9年的时间，这一信息可对应E选项中的the acquisition of a doctoral，从结构和内容构成了合理的衔接，所以43题应选择A。
解析：依据43题的选项A，说人文学科获得博士学位的时间长，需要倾注很大的热情，所以高达一半的英语博士生在获得学位之前辍学就毫不奇怪了。从剩下的选项中，首先排除F，因为F的“conclude”可知F项应为全文的总结。从C的“Equally unsurprisingly，only about half end up with the jobs they entered graduate school to get: tenured professorships。”可知，C是紧接着A，所以44题选C。
Part C Translation
46.Allen’s contribution was to take an assumption we all share---that because we are not robots we therefore control our thoughts---and reveal its erroneous nature。
【答案解析】本句的主干是Allen’s contribution was to take an assumption and reveal its erroneous nature。破折号后面的that引导同位语从句，对前面的assumption解释说明。We all share是定语从句，修饰assumption。
47.While we may be able to sustain the illusion of control through the conscious mind alone, in reality we are continually faced with a question: “Why cannot I make myself do this or achieve that?”
【答案解析】本句结构特别清晰，主干是While we may be able to sustain …. ,we are faced with a question…。while引导让步状语从句，后面“Why cannot I make myself do this or achieve that?”是question 的具体内容。本句采用顺译法。
48.This seems a justification for neglect of those in need, and a rationalization of exploitation, of the superiority of those at the top and the inferiority of those at the bottom。
【答案解析】本句的主体结构为：This seems a justification and a rationalization。 本句的难点在于运用很多介词短语作后置定语，介词短语套介词短语，使得宾语非常复杂。“for neglect of those in need”修饰“justification”、“of exploration”、“of the superiority”“of the inferiority” 修饰rationalization。而“of those at the top”和“of those at the bottom”又分别修饰superiority和inferiority。
49.circumstances seem to be designed to bring out the best in us, and if we feel that we have been “wronged” then we are unlikely to begin a conscious effort to escape from our situation。
【答案解析】本句主体结构是：circumstances seem to be designed to…., and if we feel that… then we are unlikely to… “环境好像是为…,而设计，如果我们感受到…,我们就不可能…”； “bring out” 是产生、使…显示出来；“wronged” 是“被冤枉，被委屈”的意思，“be (un)likely to do” (不) 可能做某事；
50.The upside is the possibilities contained in knowing that everything is up to us; where before we were experts in the array of limitations, now we become authorities of what is possible.
【答案解析】本句主体结构为The upside is the possibilities，译为“正面意义在于可能性”。Contained in knowing that everything is up to us，是过去分词结构作后置定语。分号后面是一个有连词where引导的状语从句。Where 在这里是“在某种情况下(in what situation, to what point)的意思。
Section III Writing
I am writing, without hesitation, to share one of my favorite movies, Forest Gump, with you, which is not only conducive to your study, but also beneficial to your life。
For one thing, the beautiful language in this original English movie may contribute to your study of English in listening, speaking, reading and writing. For another thing, the profound cultural elements implicit in the scene will equip you with foreign cultural background and, above all, enrich your daily life。
Would you like to see this movie after my recommendation? Remember to tell me your opinion about the movie. I am looking forward to your early reply。
The terrible scene depicted in the cartoon shows that some people in our life still lack the awareness of environmental protection. The picture illustrates that two tourists are chatting and eating happily on a boat and casually throwing their rubbish into the lake which is full of litter and waste. The drawing sets us thinking too much due to its far-reaching influence。
Nowadays, though the awareness of protecting environment is being accepted by more and more people, we can still see many unpleasant scenes especially in scenic spots. Why does this phenomenon arise? Many factors are accounting for it. First and foremost, to some people, the consciousness of protecting environment is still not so strong. They may not think it is a big deal to throw rubbish everywhere. In addition, the environmental management system isn’t so satisfying. For example, in some places there’re few regulations or the implementation is seldom performed actually。
From what has been discussed above, it is urgent to take some effective and relative measures. In the first place, we should continue to conduct more propaganda in communities and schools so as to let people realize the importance of protecting environment. In the second, more rules should be made and carried out by the government to restrain the conduction of destroying environment. People should work together to create clean and beautiful surroundings。