简短回答题(Short Answer Questions)在全国四、六级英语考试中属新题型,这种新题型已从1997年元月起在全国四、六级考试中陆续使用。在四、六级考试卷面上, "简短回答"题部分紧接在"阅读理解"部分之后。位于Paper Two上, 和写作(Writing)并列为两道大题, 每次考试为三百字左右的文章, 文章类型的难易度与阅读理解部分的类似。文章后面有五个问答题或不完整的句子, 要求考生在阅读文章以后用简短的英文句子、单词或短语, 来回答所提出的问题或完成不完整的句子。考试时间为15分钟, 分值为15分, 与写作部分并重。可见, 简短问答题做得好与坏、优与劣, 直接关系到整个卷面的得分。
简答题是主观题的一种类型。这种题型不仅可以检验学生对文章的理解, 同时还可以测试学生对英语的基本语法知识的掌握程度, 对语言文字的表达、驾驭能力, 是一种极好的能够体现学生综合素质的题型。
1. 回答的内容必须正确：考生所运用的表达方式可以多种多样, 各不相同, 但必须遵循一个原则, 那就是必须回答得正确, 要准确到位, 不能问东答西, 牛头不对马嘴。
2. 语言的表达形式必须正确：要用合乎语法规范的语言表达清楚。语言出现错误时便会扣分。当然简答题的宗旨是注重内容而不太注重形式, 所以即便考生表达出现多种语言错误, 都只扣掉0. 5分。
其次, "简短"是很重要的标准。考生回答问题时, 要言简意赅, 切忌罗嗦。因此如果考生回答问题时出现无关的内容时, 便要扣除0. 5分, 而且如果答案中有相互矛盾的内容时, 则内容矛盾的部分均不得分。
根据以上的答题宗旨和要求, 我们在做这种题目时, 就必须要注意一些答题技巧。一般来讲, 作简短问答题应遵循以下几个步骤来进行：
1. 阅读要有的放矢。可先用一分钟左右的时间, 来大致了解一下文章后面提出的问题及其所问的内容, 做到阅读文章时心中有数, 带着问题去阅读。这样做最大的优点是避免了阅读中的盲目性,既节约了阅读时间, 又提高了阅读效率, 同时也就把握住了回答问题的准确度。
2. 然后, 用五分钟左右的时间来仔细阅读文章, 阅读速度一般为每分钟60个单词, 不宜过快过急, 否则就要影响理解效果, 欲速则不达。阅读时凭借脑中对各题所问内容的印象, 捕捉与问题有关的信息词。在原文和问题有关短语、句子上做相应的标记。以便做题时查找。
3. 原则上, 读一遍原文即可答题, 一般难度的问题到此即可获得圆满答案。如果有的问题较难, 难以立刻找到答案, 可有选择地再仔细阅读原文中与该题有关的内容。切忌考生凭自己的主观臆断来答题。
4. 答题时尽量使用自己的语言, 不要过多地照抄文中的语句。答案要简洁、扼要, 书写要工整清晰, 争取以最简单易懂的词句来说明问题。
5. 答案一定要写在该题所要求写的地方, 以避答非所问之嫌, 而影响得分。
根据以上的答题宗旨和要求, 我们在做这种题目时, 就必须要注意一些答题技巧, 为了能够直观地阐述清楚, 我们选取一篇文章为例：
In Britain, the old Road Traffic Act restricted speeds to 2 m.p.h. (miles per hour ) in towns and 4 m.p.h. in the country. Later Parliament increased the speed limit to 14 m.p.h.. But by 1903 the development of the car industry had made it necessary to raise the limit to 20 m.p.h.. By 1930, however, the law was so widely ignored that speeding restrictions were done away with altogether. For five years motorists were free to drove at whatever speeds they liked. Then in 1935 the Road Traffic Act imposed a 30 m.p.h. speed limit in built-up areas, along with the introduction of driving tests and pedestrian (行路人) crossings.
Speeding is now the most common motoring offence in Britain, offences for speeding fall into three classes: exceeding the limit on a restricted road, exceeding on any road the limit for the vehicle you are driving, and exceeding the 70 m.p.h. limit on any road. A restricted road is one where the street lamps are 200 yards apart, or more.
The main controversy (争论) surrounding speeding laws is the extent of their safety value. The Ministry of Transport maintains that speed limits reduce accidents. It claims that when the 30 m.p.h. limit was introduced in 1935 there was a fall of 15 percent in fatal accidents. Likewise (同样的), when the 40 m.p.h. speed limit was imposed on a number of roads in London in the late fifties, there was a 28 percent reduction in serious accidents. There were also fewer casualties (伤亡) in the year after the 70 m.p.h. motorway limit was imposed in 1966.
In America, however, it is thought that the reduced accident figures are due rather to the increase in traffic density. This is why it has even been suggested that the present speed limits should be done away with completely, or that a guide should be given to inexperienced drivers and the speed limits made advisory, as is done in parts of the USA. Questions:
1. During which period could British motorists drive without speed limits? From 1930 to 1935. / Between 1930 and 1935.
2. What measures were adopted in 1935 in addition to the speeding restrictions? Driving tests and pedestrian crossings.
3. Speeding is a motoring offence a driver commits when he_____. Drivers too fast ./ exceeds the speed limit.
4. What is the opinion of British authorities concerning speeding laws? Speed limits reduce accidents.
5. What reason do Americans give for the reduction in traffic accidents? The increase in traffic density
一般来说, 这种题型得分高的往往都是那些表达非常简短的考生。要学会抓住关键字词, 问什么答什么, 不要有任何多余的、拖泥带水的废话, 这样不仅做到了简洁, 同时也避免了写长句容易出现语言错误的毛博
考生如果原封不动地照搬一句扣0. 5分, 照搬两句以及两句以上扣2分, 因此即便是肯定原文中的某句就是正确答案, 也不要完整地抄下来, 而应做些变动。
All that we really need to plot out the future of our Universe are a few good measurements. This does not mean that we can sit down today and outline the future course of the universe with anything like certainty. There are still too many things we don't know about the way the Universe is put together. We do know exactly what information we need to fill in our knowledge, and we have a pretty good idea of how to go about getting it.
Perhaps the best way to think of our present situation is to imagine a train coming into a switchyard. All of the Switches are set before the train arrives, so that its path is completely determined. Some Switches we can see, others we can't. There is no ambiguity if We can see the setting of a switch： we can say with confidence that some possible futures will not materialize and others will. At the unseen switches，however, there is no such certainty. We know the train will take one of the tracks leading out, but we have no idea which one. The unseen switches are the true decision points in the future, and what happens when we arrive at them determines the entire subsequent course of events.
When we think about the future of the universe. We can see our "track" many bil1ions of years into the future, but after that there are decision points to be dealt with and possible fates to consider. The goal science is to reduce the ambiguity at the decision points and find the true road to follow.
1. Why is it difficult to be certain about the distant future of the universe?
2. What does the author comment on the function of the universe's unseen "Switches"?
3. What can we see when we think about the future of the universe?
4. Whom is the author probably Writing this passage to?
5. For what reason does the author write this article?
1. Because we are not sure how the universe is put together. 文章第一段第二句说：这不意味着我们可以坐在家里完全有把握勾画出宇宙未来的走向。接着第三句回答了第二句的原因：因为对宇宙的形成(put together)仍然知之甚少。
2. They determine which course the universe will take in the future. 文章第二段最后一句话说. 看不见的"控制钮"是未来真正的决择点. 当我们到达这些决择点时. 出现的情况将决定未来的整个前景的进程。
3. We can see our path many billion years into the future. 文章最后一段第一句话的主句就是本题的答案。
4. To the people in general. 根据全文所传达的意思来看, 本文不是针对某些具体范畴的人而写的. 而是针对大众而写的。
5. By an analogy. 纵观全文, 作者采用了"类比"(analogy)的修辞手法来进行描写。即把对未来
宇宙的探索的未知成分比作调车场的转辙器, 有的可以看到, 有的不能看到。
Do you find getting up in the morning so difficult that it's painful? This might be called laziness, but Dr. K1eitman has a new explanation. He has proved that everyone has a daily energy cycle.
During the hours when you 1abor through your work you may say that you are "hot". That's true. The time of day when you feel most energetic is when your cycle of body temperature is at its peak. For some people the peak comes in the afternoon or evening. No one has discovered why this is so, but it 1eads to such familiar monologues as：Get up, John! You'll be late for work again! The possible explanation to the trouble is that John is at his temperature and energy peak in the evening. Much family quarrelling ends when husbands and wives realize what these energy cycles mean, and which cycle each member of the family has. You can't change your energy cycle? But you can learn to make your 1ife fit it better. Habit can help, Dr.C1eitman believes. Maybe you are sleepy in the evening but feel you must stay up 1ate any way. Counteract your cycle to some extent by habitually staying up later than you want to. If your energy is low in the morning but you have an important job to do early in the day rise before your usual hour. This won't change your cycle, but you will get up steam and work better at your low point.
Get off to a slow start which saves your energy. Get up with a 1eisurely yawn and stretch. Sit on the edge of the bed a minute before putting your feet on the floor. Avoid the troublesome search for clean clothes by 1aying them out the night before. Whenever possible, do routine work in the afternoon and save tasks requiring more energy or concentration for your sharper hours.
1. If a person finds getting up early a problem, what is the most possible reason?
2. What is the reason leading to family quarrel?
3. What should one do if he wants to work more efficiently at his low point in the morning?
4. Why should you rise with a yawn and stretch?
5. What is the main idea of the passage?
1. He is at his peak in the afternoon or evening. 根据文章第二段的叙述, 任何人每天都有一个体温周期。如果你感到精力最充沛时, 就表示你的体温处于周期的高峰。有些人的高峰在上午, 有些人的在下午, 早上难于起床的人, 很可能他的周期高峰在下午。本段倒数第二句就是本题的答案。
2. unawareness of energy cycles. 第二段最后一句说, 如果夫妻双方弄清楚了能量周期的道理, 吵架也就结束了。所以吵架的原因也就是不懂得人的能量循环周期。
3. He should get up earlier than usual. 文章第三段倒数第二句说, 假如你上午的能量周期处于低谷, 而你在上午又有一件紧要的工作要做, 那你就应该比平常早起床。这就是本题的答案。
4. It will help keep my energy for the day's work. 文章第四段一、二句说, 动作慢一些起床, 可以节省体能, 起床时打打呵欠, 伸展肢体。这些都可以使你保持精力, 投入工作.
5. Man's energy cycle and himself-adjustment. 全文的大意是说, 人人都有一个能量代谢周期, 其周期有高峰和低谷, 高峰期精力充沛, 低谷期精力减弱。但人们可以进行自我调节, 变低谷为高峰, 使其更好地投入工作。