Section Ⅰ Use of English
Read the following text. Choose the best word for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. （10 points）
The idea that some groups of people may be more intelligent than others is one of those hypotheses that dare not speak its name. But Gregory Cochran is 1 to say it anyway. He is that 2 bird, a scientist who works independently 3 any institution. He helped popularize the idea that some diseases not 4 thought to have a bacterial cause were actually infections, which aroused Much controversy when it was first suggested.
5 he, however, might tremble at the 6 of what he is about to do. Together with another two scientists, he is publishing a paper which not only 7 that one group of humanity is more intelligent than the others, but explains the process that has brought this about. The group in 8 are a particular people originated from central Europe. The process is natural selection.
This group generally do well in IQ test, 9 12-15 points above the 10 value of 100, and have contributed 11 to the intellectual and cultural life of the West, as the 12 of their elites, including several world-renowned scientists, 13 . They also suffer more often than most people from a number of nasty genetic diseases, such as breast cancer. These facts, 14 , have previously been thought unrelated. The former has been 15 to social effects, such as a strong tradition of 16 education. The latter was seen as a （an） 17 of genetic isolation. Dr. Cochran suggests that the intelligence and diseases are intimately 18 . His argument is that the unusual history of these people has 19 them to unique evolutionary pressures that have resulted in this 20 state of affairs.
1. [A] selected [B] prepared [C] obliged [D] pleased
2. [A] unique [B] particular [C] special [D] rare
3. [A] of [B] with [C] in [D] against
4. [A] subsequently [B] presently [C] previously [D] lately
5. [A] Only [B] So [C] Even [D] Hence
6. [A] thought [B] sight [C] cost [D] risk
7. [A] advises [B] suggests [C] protests [D] objects
8. [A] progress [B] fact [C] need [D] question
9. [A] attaining [B] common [C] mean [D] calculating
10.[A] normal [B] common [C] mean [D] total
11.[A] unconsciously [B] disproportionately [C] indefinitely [D] unaccountably
12.[A] missions [B] fortunes [C] interests [D] careers
13.[A] affirm [B] witness [C] observe [D] approve
14.[A] moreover [B] therefore [C] however [D] meanwhile
15.[A] given up [B] got over [C] carried on [D] put down
16.[A] assessing [B] supervising [C] administering [D] valuing
17.[A] development [B] origin [C] consequence [D]instrument
18.[A] linked [B] integrated [C] woven [D] combined
19.[A] limited [B] subjected [C] converted [D] directed
20.[A] paradoxical [B] incompatible [C] inevitable [D] continuous
Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension
Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C, or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. （40 points）
While still catching-up to men in some spheres of modern life, women appear to be way ahead in at least one undesirable category. Women are particularly susceptible to developing depression and anxiety disorders in response to stress compared to men, according to Dr. Yehuda, chief psychiatrist at New York''s Veteran''s Administration Hospital.
Studies of both animals and humans have shown that sex hormones somehow affects the stress response, causing females under stress to produce more of the trigger chemicals than do males under the same conditions. In several of the studies, when stressed-out female rats had their ovaries （the female reproductive organs） removed, their chemical responses became equal to those of the males.
Adding to a woman''s increased dose of stress chemicals, are her increased opportunities for stress. It''s not necessarily that women don''t cope as well. It''s just that they have so much more to cope with, says Dr. Yehuda. Their capacity for tolerating stress may even be greater than men''s, she observes, It''s just that they''re dealing with so many more things that they become worn out from it more visibly and sooner.
Dr. Yehuda notes another difference between the sexes. I think that the kinds of things that women are exposed to tend to be in more of a chronic or repeated nature. Men go to war and are exposed to combat stress. Men are exposed to more acts of random physical violence. The kinds of interpersonal violence that women are exposed to tend to be in domestic situations, by, unfortunately, parents or other family numbers, and they tend not to be one-shot deals. The wear-and-tear that comes from these longer relationships can be quite devastating.
Adeline Alvarez married at 18 and gave birth to a son, but wad determined to finish college. I struggled a lot to get the college degree. I was living in so much frustration that that was my escape, to go to school, and get ahead and do better. Later her marriage ended and she became a single mother. It''s the hardest thing to take care of a teenager, have a job, pay the rent, pay the car payment, and pay the debt. I lived from paycheck to paycheck.
Not everyone experiences the kinds of severe chronic stresses Alvarez describes. But most women today are coping with a lot of obligations, with few breaks, and feeling the strain. Alvarez''s experience demonstrates the importance of finding ways to diffuse stress before it threatens your health and your ability to function.
21. Which of the following is true according to the first two paragraphs?
[A] Women are biologically more vulnerable to stress.
[B] Women are still suffering much stress caused by men.
[C] Women are more experienced than men in coping with stress.
[D] Men and women show different inclinations when faced with stress.
22. Dr. Yehuda''s research suggests that women
[A] Need extra doses of chemicals to handle stress.
[B] Have limited capacity for tolerating stress.
[C] Are more capable of avoiding stress.
[D] Are exposed to more stress.
23. According to Paragraph 4, the stress women confront tends to be
[A] domestic and temporary.
[B] irregular and violent.
[C] durable and frequent.
[D] trivial and random.
24. The sentence I lived from paycheck to paycheck.（Line 6, Para. 5） shows that
[A] Alvarez cared about nothing but making money.
[B] Alvarez''s salary barely covered her household expenses.
[C] Alvarez got paychecks from different jobs.
[D] Alvarez paid practically everything by check.
25. Which of the following would be the best title for the text?
[A] Strain of Stress: No Way Out?
[B] Responses to Stress: Gender Difference
[C] Stress Analysis: What Chemicals Say
[D] Gender Inequality: Women Under Stress
It used to be so straightforward. A team of researchers working together in the laboratory would submit the results of their research to a journal. A journal editor would then remove the authors names and affiliations from the paper and send it to their peers for review. Depending on the comments received, the editor would accept the paper for publication or decline it. Copyright rested with the journal publisher, and researchers seeking knowledge of the results would have to subscribe to the journal.
No longer. The Internet and pressure from funding agencies, who are questioning why commercial publishers are making money from government-funded research by restricting access to it- is making access to scientific results a reality. The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development （OECD） has just issued a report describing the far-reaching consequences of this. The report, by John Houghton of Victoria University in Australia and Graham Vickery of the OECD, makes heavy reading for publishers who have, so far, made handsome profits. But it goes further than that. It signals a change in what has, until now, been a key element of scientific endeavor.
The value of knowledge and the return on the public investment in research depends, in part, upon wide distribution and ready access. It is big business. In America, the core scientific publishing market is estimated at between $7 billion and $11 billion. The International Association of Scientific, Technical and Medical Publishers says that there are more than 2,000 publishers worldwide specializing in these subjects. They publish more than 1.2 million articles each year in some 16,000 journals.
This is now changing. According to the OECD report, some 75% of scholarly journals are now online. Entirely new business models are emerging; three main institutional subscribers pay for access to a collection of online journal titles through site-licensing agreements. There is open-access publishing, typically supported by asking the author （or his employer） to pay for the paper to be published. Finally, there are open-access archives, where organizations such as universities or international laboratories support institutional repositories. Other models exist that are hybrids of these three, such as delayed open-access, where journals allow only subscribers to read a paper for the first six months, before making it freely available to everyone who wishes to see it. All this could change the traditional form of the peer-review process, at least for the publication of papers.
26. In the first paragraph, the author discusses
[A] the background information of journal editing.
[B] the publication routine of laboratory reports.
[C] the relations of authors with journal publishers.
[D] the traditional process of journal publication.
27. Which of the following is true of the OECD report?
[A] It criticizes government-funded research.
[B] It introduces an effective means of publication.
[C] It upsets profit-making journal publishers.
[D] It benefits scientific research considerably.
28. According to the text, online publication is significant in that
[A] it provides an easier access to scientific results.
[B] it brings huge profits to scientific researchers.
[C] it emphasizes the crucial role of scientific knowledge.
[D] it facilitates public investment in scientific research.
29. With the open-access publishing model, the author of a paper is required to
[A] cover the cost of its publication.
[B] subscribe to the journal publishing it.
[C] allow other online journals to use it freely.
[D] complete the peer-review before submission.
30. Which of the following best summarizes the main idea of the passage?
[A] The Internet is posing a threat to publishers.
[B] A new mode of publication is emerging.
[C] Authors welcome the new channel for publication.
[D] Publication is rendered easier by online service.
In the early 1960s Wilt Chamberlain was one of only three players in the National Basketball Association （NBA） listed at over seven feet. If he had played last season, however, he would have been one of 42. The bodies playing major professional sports have changed dramatically over the years, and managers have been more than willing to adjust team uniforms to fit the growing numbers of bigger, longer frames.
The trend in sports, though, may be obscuring an unrecognized reality: Americans have generally stopped growing. Though typically about two inches taller now than 140 years ago, today''s people- especially those born to families who have lived in the U.S. for many generations- apparently reached their limit in the early 1960s. And they aren’t likely to get any taller. In the general population today, at this genetic, environmental level, we''ve pretty much gone as far as we can go, says anthropologist William Cameron Chumlea of Wright State University. In the case of NBA players, their increase in height appears to result from the increasingly common practice of recruiting players from all over the world.
Growth, which rarely continues beyond the age of 20, demands calories and nutrients–notably, protein–to feed expanding tissues. At the start of the 20th century, under-nutrition and childhood infections got in the way. But as diet and health improved, children and adolescents have, on average, increased in height by about an inch and a half every 20 years, a pattern known as the secular trend in height. Yet according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, average height- 5′9〞for men, 5′4〞for women- hasn''t really changed since 1960.
Genetically speaking, there are advantages to avoiding substantial height. During childbirth, larger babies have more difficulty passing through the birth canal. Moreover, even though humans have been upright for millions of years, our feet and back continue to struggle with bipedal posture and cannot easily withstand repeated strain imposed by oversize limbs. There are some real constraints that are set by the genetic architecture of the individual organism, says anthropologist William Leonard of Northwestern University.
Genetic maximums can change, but don''t expect this to happen soon. Claire C. Gordon, senior anthropologist at the Army Research Center in Natick, Mass, ensures that 90 percent of the uniforms and workstations fit recruits without alteration. She says that, unlike those for basketball, the length of military uniforms has not changed for some time. And if you need to predict human height in the near future to design a piece of equipment, Gordon says that by and large, you could use today’s data and feel fairly confident.
31. Wilt Chamberlain is cited as an example to
[A] illustrate the change of height of NBA players.
[B] show the popularity of NBA players in the U.S……
[C] compare different generations of NBA players.
[D] assess the achievements of famous NBA players.
32. Which of the following plays a key role in body growth according to the text？
[A] Genetic modification.
[B] Natural environment.
[C] Living standards.
[D] Daily exercise.
33. On which of the following statements would the author most probably agree？
[A] Non-Americans add to the average height of the nation.
[B] Human height is conditioned by the upright posture.
[C] Americans are the tallest on average in the world.
[D] Larger babies tend to become taller in adulthood.
34. We learn from the last paragraph that in the near future
[A] the garment industry will reconsider the uniform size.
[B] the design of military uniforms will remain unchanged.
[C] genetic testing will be employed in selecting sportsmen.
[D] the existing data of human height will still be applicable.
35. The text intends to tell us that
[A] the change of human height follows a cyclic pattern.
[B] human height is becoming even more predictable.
[C] Americans have reached their genetic growth limit.
[D] the genetic pattern of Americans has altered.
In the following article, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 41-45, choose the most suitable one from the list A-G to fit into each of the numbered blanks. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the blanks. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. （10 points）
The time for sharpening pencils, arranging your desk, and doing almost anything else instead of writing has ended. The first draft will appear on the page only if you stop avoiding the inevitable and sit, stand up, or lie down to write. （41）
Be flexible. Your outline should smoothly conduct you from one point to the next, but do not permit it to railroad you. If a relevant and important idea occurs to you now, work it into the draft. （42）Grammar, punctuation, and spelling can wait until you revise. Concentrate on what you are saying. Good writing most often occurs when you are in hot pursuit of an idea rather than in a nervous search for errors.
（43）Your pages will be easier to keep track of that way, and, if you have to clip a paragraph to place it elsewhere, you will nit lose any writing on the other side.
If you are working on a word processor, you can take advantage of its capacity to make additions and deletions as well as move entire paragraph by making just a few simple keyboard commands. Some software programs can also check spelling and certain grammatical elements in your writing.（44）These printouts are also easier to read than the screen when you work on revision.
Once you have a first draft on paper, you can delete material that in unrelated to your thesis and add material necessary to illustrate your points and make your paper convincing. The student who wrote： The A &P as a State of Mind wisely dropped a paragraph that questioned whether Sammy displays chauvinistic attitudes toward women.
（45）Remember that your initial draft is only that. You should go through the paper many times-and then again- working to substantiate and clarify your ideas. You may even end up with several entire versions of the paper. Rewrite. The sentences within each paragraph should be related to a single topic. Transitions should connect one paragraph to the next so that there are no abrupt or confusing shifts. Awkward or wordy phrasing or unclear sentences and paragraphs should be mercilessly poked and prodded into shape.
[A] To make revising easier, leave wide margins and extra space between lines so that you can easily add words, sentences, and corrections. Write on only one side of the paper.
After you have clearly and adequately developed the body of your paper, pay particular attention to the introductory and concluding paragraphs. It''s probably best to write the introduction last, after you know precisely what you are introducing. Concluding paragraphs demand equal attention because they leave the reader with a final impression.
[C] It's worth remembering, however, that though a clean copy fresh off a printer may look terrific, it will read only as well as the thinking and writing that have gone into it. Many writers prudently store their data on disks and print their pages each time they finish a draft to avoid losing any material because of power failures or other problems.
[D] It makes no difference how you write, just so you do. Now that you have developed a topic into a tentative thesis, you can assemble your notes and begin to flesh out whatever outline you have made.
[E] Although this is an interesting issue, it has nothing to do with the thesis, which explains how the setting influences Sammy's decision to quit his job. Instead of including that paragraph, she added one that described Lengel’s crabbed response to the girls so that she could lead up to the A&P policy he enforces.
[F] In the final paragraph about the significance of the setting in A&P, the student brings together the reasons Sammy quit his job by referring to his refusal to accept Lengel's store policies.
[G] By using the first draft as a means of thinking about what you want to say, you will very likely discover more than your notes originally suggested. Plenty of good writers don't use outlines at all but discover ordering principles as they write. Do not attempt to compose a perfectly correct draft the first time around.
Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2. （10 points）
In his autobiography, Darwin himself speaks of his intellectual powers with extraordinary modesty. He points out that he always experienced much difficulty in expressing himself clearly and concisely, but （46） he believes that this very difficulty may have had the compensating advantage of forcing him to think long and intently about every sentence, and thus enabling him to detect errors in reasoning and in his own observations. He disclaimed he possession of any great quickness of apprehension or wit, such as distinguished Huxley. （47） He asserted, also, that his power to follow a long and purely abstract train of thought was very limited, for which reason felt certain that he never could have succeeded with mathematics. His memory, too, he described as extensive, but hazy. So poor in one sense was it that he never could remember for more than a few days a single date or a line of poetry.（48） On the other hand, he did not accept as well founded the charge made by some of his critics that, while he was a good observer, he had no power of reasoning. This, he thought, could not be true, because the Origin of Species is one long argument from the beginning to the end, and has convinced many able men. No one, he submits, could have written it without possessing some power of reasoning. He was willing to assert that I have a fair share of invention, and of common sense or judgment, such as every fairly successful lawyer or doctor must have, but not, I believe, in any higher degree. （49） He adds humbly that perhaps he was superior to the common run of men in noticing things which easily escape attention, and in observing them carefully.
Writing in the last year of his life, he expressed the opinion that in two or three respects his mind had changed during the preceding twenty or thirty years. Up to the age of thirty or beyond it poetry of many kids gave him great pleasure. Formerly, too, pictures had given him considerable, and music very great, delight. In 1881, however, he said：Now for many years I cannot endure to read a line of poetry. I have also almost lost my taste for pictures or music. （50） Darwin was convinced that the loss of these tastes was not only a loss of happiness, but might possibly be injurious to the intellect, and more probably to the moral character.
Section Ⅲ Writing
You have just come back from Canada and found a music CD in your luggage that you forgot to return to Bob, your landlord there. Write him a letter to
1）make an apology, and
2）suggest a solution.
You should write about 100 words on ANSWER SHEET 2.
Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. Use “Li Ming” instead.
Do not write the address. （10 points）
Write an essay of 160-200 words based on the following drawing. In your essay, you should
1）describe the drawing briefly,
2）explain its intended meaning, and then
3）give your comments.
You should write neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2. （20 points）
解析：本题测试语义逻辑衔接。 “ selected” 意为 “挑选”; “prepared”意为 “准备”； “obliged”意为“迫使，责成”；“pleased”意为“高兴地，满足地”， 前一句“人们不敢说”，本句中由“but ”一词可推出意思与上句相反，即“Cochran 准备说”， 所以选B.
解析：本题测试词义辨析 。“unique”意为“唯一的， 独特的”；“particular”意为“特殊的， 独特的”；“special”意为“特别的， 特殊的”；“rare”意为“稀罕的，珍贵的”，rare bird 意为“稀有的人”，空格相关意思是“只有Cochra准备说”， 而且 “rare bird” 是固定搭配,所以选D
解析：本题测试介词的语意搭配, independently of 意为“不依赖于， 独立”，所以选A
解析：本题测试词义搭配。空格相关意思是“一想到他即将要做的，即使他自己也….” “At thought of ”意为“一看到…”； at sight of意为年“一看见”；at cost of 意为“以…的代价”；at risk of意为“冒着….的危险”，所以选A
解析：本题测试动词辨析。advice意为 “建议”； suggest意为“建议，提出’”； protest“主张，断言”； object“反对”，此句指“在论文中， 他建议…”，所以选B
解析：本题测试词组搭配，in progress 意为“进行中”；in fact 意为“事实上”； in need意为“在危难中”； in question 意为“正在被讨论的”，前一句正在谈论 “ group群体” ,本句衔接上一句表达“正在被讨论的这个群体”，所以选D
解析：本题考查动词辨析。从该句中的12-15 points 可知，前面的动词是与分数相关的。score的意思是得分，打分，而其他三项没有这层意思。故答案为B。
解析：本题考查固定搭配。get down to的意思是归因于，符合句意。而give up to的意思是让给，get over to的意思是让某人明白某事，carry on的意思是继续开展，坚持，均不合题意。故答案为D。
解析：本题考查动词辨析。subject to意为使…经受或遭受；limit to表示限制；convert to表示转变；direct to表示指向。本句的意思是说这些人不同寻常的历史使他们经受了独特的进化压力，只有B符合题意。
本题的答案信息来源在文章的第二段。第二段说到，互联网使接触到科学结果成为一个现实。OECD刚刚发布一个报告，描写了其深远的影响。这份报告使到目前为止赢得不菲利润的很多出版商争相阅读(the report make heavy reading for publishers)。第三段说到核心科学出版市场利润巨大，第四段说到，这种情况正在改变，也是在线出版可能让他们利润下滑，所以让他们有些不安，故答案为C。
解析：从文中“there is open-access publishing,typically supported by asking the author to pay for the paper to be publish”可知答案为A。
文中“…listed at over seven feet. If he had ….The bodies.. changed dramatically over the years”可以看出此段主要讲述NBA球员身高的变化；另外，从文章中心来看，可以排出B，C，D。因此选A
从第三段“but as diet and health improved, children and adolescents have increased in height by…..”可以看出生活水平对于身体成长起着非常重要的作用；另外，A，B，D选项所涉及的genetic modification ,natural environment 和daily exercise文中并没有提到；
最后一段Claire C. Gordon提到90%的制服和工作站仍将会适合新招人员，这就暗示了D选项所提到的内容。另外，可以依据排出法可以知道A，B，C不正确。
从全文中心来看，文章并不是以“predict human height”为中心的，而是在谈美国人身高问题。所以C选项为正确选项。
根据文章的逻辑一致性和联系，从第二段的“But recently, many historians have begun to focus on the roles of slavery…..”可以看出作者在第一段举George Washing(第一任美国总统)对待奴隶的例子是为了说明“美国历史上奴隶制的作用”。因此选C
根据排除法A项中的widely是错误的，排除；B项中说的太笼统，而第二段在讲关于slavery. C项中deliberately和made up是不对的。因此选D。
从最后一段“after observing the bravery of the black soldiers during the Revolutionary War…. ”可以看出Washington做出释放奴隶的决定是在他看见黑人士兵在独立战争中的英勇作战以后，因此B为正确选项。
08 年考试的新题型 仍旧是考生熟悉的七选五题型。本文主要内容是告诉读者如何利用好写作中的第一稿(草稿)。
42 题 G
43 题 A
在选项后面出现了that way 所以上文中会说到具体的哪种方式，只有A选项提到了具体的方式，因此符合题意。
44. 题 C
选项后面提到了these printouts，空前面提到:“在修改过程中，看打印出来的材料比看电脑屏幕容易。”因此44题选项中也会有和打印出来的材料相关的内容。C选项中很明显地有copy 还有 printer对应下文中所提及的打印出来的材料。
45. 题 E
前文提到Sammy这个人，这是一个线索词，选项中E 和F中都包含这个词，但是此段的主题句提到，在写作中要删去与主题不相关的素材，E选项中instead of adding that paragraph，也就意味着删去了这段。和主题句对应。
46. He believes that this very difficulty may have had the compensating advantage of forcing him to think long and intently about every sentence, and thus enabling him to detect errors in reasoning and in his own observations.
本句的考查点是that引导的宾语从句，主干是he believes that….that从句的结构是this very difficulty may have the….advantage of forcing…, and thus enabling…。Of后面forcing和enabling组成的并列结构做advantage的同位语。
47. He asserted, also, that his power to follow a long and purely abstract train of thought was very limited, for which reason he felt certain that he never could have succeeded with mathematics.
本句考查点是宾语从句，非限制性定语从句。主干是He asserted that…。宾语从句的结构是his power to… was…。其中不定式to引导的部分 follow …of thought做power的定语；for which reason所引导的非限制性定语从句中又包含一个that引导的表语从句。
48. On the other hand, he did not accept as well founded the charge made by some of his critics that, while he was a good observer, he had no power of reasoning.
本句考查点是同位语从句，让步状语从句。主干是he did not accept… the charge made by… that…。其中as well founded作为一个插入成分，对charge进行修饰。made引导的过去分词短语作定语修饰charge。That引导的从句是charge的同位语，包括一个while引导的让步状语从句。
49. He adds humbly that perhaps he was “superior to the common run of men in noticing things which easily escape attention, and in observing them carefully.”
本句考查点是宾语从句，定语从句。主干是he adds …that… 其中宾语从句的结构是he was superior to …in…, and in…。which引导的是things的定语从句。
50. Darvin was convinced that the loss of these tastes was not only a loss of happiness, but might possibly be injurious to the intellect, and more probably to the moral character.
本题考查点是宾语从句。主干是Darvin was convinced that…。其中宾语从句的结构是the loss of these tastes was not only…, but…be injurious to …, and to …。
I am writing to express my apology to you.
Several days ago, I borrowed your music CD when I lived in your house. Unfortunately, after I came back from Canada, I found it in my luggage. I was in such a hurry that I forgot to return it to you. I will send it to you by post or express as soon as possible. If necessary, I will compensate for any troubles it may cause.
Once again, I feel so sorry for any inconvenience caused. Please accept my apologies.
As is illustrated in the picture, the two disabled persons whose crippled legs are bound together do a lot of traveling. Accordingly, this far-reaching picture reflects a common phenomenon in today’s society: the people who are in the dark want to turn the corner but they can not make it respectively and in turn they have to choose to pull together in times of trouble.
There are several reasons accounting for this. Since we have to live in an on-the-move lifestyle, we may encounter various plights, where we would be at a loss rather than to seek for others’ assistance. Further more, if we do not offer help to each other when we confront dilemma, we would not realize our dream. And no issue in China is as basic to build up the society in harmony as to conduct coordination in face of disasters.
Judging from what have been argued above, people have come to realize the value of mutual aid. It is, therefore, necessary that some effective steps be made to advocate spirit of supporting each other. To begin with, the government should make laws to encourage people to unite. In addition, people should enhance the awareness of caring each other especially when they are in trouble. Only in those ways, can we make people, even not being acquaintance, help each other.